GM-94 grenade launcher (Russia)

GM-94 grenade launcher in ready position.
GM-94 grenade launcher in ready position.

GM-94 launcher with barrel opened forward for reloading, and shoulder stockfolded.
GM-94 launcher with barrel opened forward for reloading, and shoulder stock folded.


Caliber: 43mm
Type: multi-shot, manually reloading, cartridge firing
Overall length: 810 mm (540mm with shoulder stock folded)
Weight: 4.8 kg unloaded
Effective range: up to 300 m
Magazine capacity: 3 rounds


GM-94 grenade launcher is a relatively recent development of famous Rusian KBP design bureau, located in the city of Tula. It is intended mostly for various Spetsnaz elements of Russian army, FSB (Federal Security service) and MVD (Internal Affairs Ministry). GM-94 grenade launcher is primarily a weapon for urban (MOUT / CQB) warfare – its main goal is to provide troops with short and very short range weapon firing high explosive and non-lethal (tear gas) shells. It uses proprietary 43mm ammunition, generally known as VGM93, available in several loadings, with non-fragmenting HE (thermobaric) warhead, FRAG (with steel balls inside a plastic grenade body), less-lethal (tear gas canister, rubber slug and flash-bang), and several others. The key feature of thermobaric HE warhead is that it is made mostly of plastic, and its primary kill effect is achieved by the blast (high temperature and high pressure). Kill radius is said to be about 3 meters, while safe standoff (minimal range of fire) range is only few meters more. Therefore,such ammunition can be safely used during room-to-room searches from very short range, without the danger of hitting the operator or his teammates with occasional fragments.

GM-94 grenade launcher is manually operated, magazine fed weapon. Tubular magazine holds three rounds and is located above the barrel. Magazine loading gate is located at the top of the receiver. The sliding, rifled barrel is located below the receiver. Breech of the weapon is stationary, and for reloading barrel is moved forward (to eject spent case), then moved rearward to load fresh round from magazine above. Barrel is enclosed into polymer heat shield / handguard. GM-94 is fitted with double-action trigger and manual safety. Sights are of open type, with flip-up rear. Shoulder stock is made from steel tube and is fitted with rubber buttpad. For more compact transportation and storage shoulder stock can be folded up and forward. In emergency situations GM-94 can be fired with shoulder stock folded, from off-hand position. Alternatively, GM-94 can be supplied with fixed, skeleton type buttstock made of plastic.
43mm VGM-93.100 grenade weights about 250 gram and contains up to 160 gram of thermobaric explosive mixture. Muzzle velocity is about 85 m/s. With direct hit, it can destroy armor plates up to 8mm (~1/3 of an inch) thick.