9×23 Largo, 9mm Bergmann-Bayard

9 x 23 Largo / 9mm Bergmann-Bayard


The 9 x 23 Largo, also known as the 9mm Bergmann-Bayard cartridge was developed in Germany in 1903 for use in military semi-automatic pistols being developed by the Theodor Bergmann Company. These pistols were later produced in Belgium by Pieper under Bergmann’s licence. This allowed for greater production and the round was adopted in Spain and Denmark. That’s the reason for the original Bergmann-Bayard name (“Bayard” was the trademark of the Pieper Company).

This cartridge saw extensive use in Spain, being the standard pistol and sub-machine gun ammunition of the Spanish military and police from the turn of the century until the late 1980’s. Hence came the use of the other common name for this caliber, 9mm Largo (or “9mm Big” when translated from Spanish). The Spanish used this name to distinguish it from other 9mm cartridges, such as 9mm Parabellum. Some of the Spanish ammunition may also be found labeled ‘9mm Camp Giro‘ after another pistol design, but it is the same cartridge.

The 9×23 Largo has a straight, rimless case usually made of brass. The standard loading has a full metal jacket (ball) bullet.



Bullet weight, g

Muzzle velocity, m/s

Muzzle energy, J