This cartridge is one of the oldest service cartridges still in military use in the world. Originally adopted by Russian army in 1891, along with bolt-action magazine fed rifle, it still remains in use after more than 125 years of continuous service. Over the time, it was chambered in a number of bolt-action and semi-automatic military rifles, several machine guns, and some civilian-type rifles (mostly hunting ones). Today this cartridge is still widely used by Russian military in machine guns and sniper rifles, and it is quite popular for hunting. Many types of military- and civilian-grade loadings are still produced in this chambering worldwide.
|Designation||Bullet weight, g||Muzzle velocity, m/s||Muzzle energy, J||Comments|
|M1891||13.7||610||2550||with round-nose FMJ bullet|
|L||9.7||860||3587||with pointed FMJ bullet (M1930 light ball)|
|D||11.9||795||3760||with pointed boat-tailed FMJ bullet (heavy ball)|
|B30||11||815||3650||with armor piercing bullet|
|7N1||9.56||820||3214||with pointed boat-tailed FMJ bullet, for sniper rifles|